Spot-fixing refers to illegal activity in a sport where a specific part of a game is fixed. Examples include something as minor as timing a no ball or wide delivery in cricket or timing the first throw-in or corner in association football. Spot-fixing attempts to defraud bookmakers illegally by means of a player agreeing to perform to order by pre-arrangement. As such spot-fixing differs from match fixing, where a whole match is fixed, or point shaving, a specific type of match fixing in which corrupt players (or officials) attempt to limit the margin of victory of the favoured team. Spot-fixing is more difficult to detect than match fixing or point shaving. Spot-fixing is most associated with the betting markets of the Indian subcontinent where bets can be placed on individual deliveries in a cricket match. The advent of Twenty20 cricket is said to have made spot-fixing more difficult to detect as has the growth of Internet gambling and spread betting.
Spot Fixing in Cricket:
In the 2010 Pakistan tour of England, it was alleged Pakistani players Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Aamer bowled no-balls at specific points as part of a conspiracy involving captain Salman Butt to defraud bookmakers. As a result, Salman Butt has been banned for ten years, Asif for seven years and Amir for five years. The matter became a criminal investigation that resulted in custodial sentences for four people involved.
Pakistan cricket spot-fixing controversy
In November 2011, Butt was sentenced to 30-months’ imprisonment, with Asif being imprisoned for one year and Amir jailed for six months.
In England, allegations of spot-fixing have been made against two Essex players, the Pakistani Test bowler Danish Kaneria and Mervyn Westfield.
In India, five players in IPL Season 5 (2012) were suspended for Spot-fixing. The five players were Mohnish Mishra, Shalabh Srivastava, TP Sudhindra, Harmeet Singh and Abhinav Bali.