President Obama proposed to hold a Nuclear Security Summit in 2010 in his Prague speech on April 5, 2009, and officially announced his plans to host the Summit at the G-8 Summit that was held in July 2009.
2010 Nuclear Security Summit:
The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit was a summit held in Washington, D.C., on April 12 and 13, 2010. The Summit focused on how to better safeguard weapons-grade plutonium and uranium to prevent nuclear terrorism.
Goals of the Summit:
- The Summit aimed to seek joint response measures and ways to cooperate to strengthen nuclear security, based on a shared recognition at the highest level of its importance.
- As the Summit focused on nuclear security, the aspects of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation were not addressed.
- The Washington Communiqué containing political pledges at the Summit level and the Work Plan containing specific technical measures were adopted as final documents.
Outcomes of the Summit:
- Leaders agreed on the urgency and seriousness of the threat.
- Participating States agreed to work towards the goal to secure all vulnerable nuclear materials around the world.
- Participating States reaffirmed the fundamental responsibility of nations, consistant with their international obligations, to maintain effective security of the nuclear materials and facilities under their control.
- Participating States agreed to work cooperatively as an international community to advance nuclear security, requesting and providing assistance as necessary.
2012 Nuclear Security Summit:
The 2012 Nuclear Security Summit was held on March 26-27, 2012 at the COEX Convention & Exhibition Center in Samseong-dong of Gangnam-gu district, Seoul.
The “2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit” has been the largest summit in the security field that discussed international cooperative measures to protect nuclear materials and facilities from terrorist groups, with participation from more than 53 heads of state and international organizations. The main issues discussed at the Summit were as follows.
- Cooperative measures to combat the threat of nuclear terrorism
- Protection of nuclear materials and related facilities
- Prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials
The Significance of the Hosting of the Summit in Seoul:
Korea has established its status as an advanced country by securing the hosting of a whole range of international meetings in the economic, cultural, and sports fields including the hosting of the 2010 G20 Seoul Summit. The holding of the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit means that Korea has gained even greater standing in the international community in the security field as well. In addition, it is meaningful that Korea will play a leading role in establishing global governance in the security and political fields just as it played a significant role in the economic field through the hosting of the 2010 G20 Seoul Summit.
Heads of 53 states which participated in the 1st Washington Nuclear Security Summit. (Republic of Korea, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, UAE, UK, Ukraine, USA, Vietnam).
Heads of international organizations which participated in the Washington Summit (the UN, IAEA, and EU).
INTERPOL was added to the group of participants as agreed upon between the participating countries and international organizations.